The guasimo, guásima, guácima, caulote, Cuaulote (in Nahuatl), Majahua (Mutamba Guazuma Ulmifolia) is a medium-sized tree of the family Malvaceae, in the native tropical América.


Bubroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng.

Bubroma guazuma (L.) Willd.

Bubroma invira Willd.

Bubroma polybotryum (Cav.) Willd.

Bubroma tomentosum (Kunth) Spreng.

Diuroglossum rufescens Turcz.

Guazuma blumei G.Don

Guazuma bubroma Tussac

Guazuma coriacea Rusby

Guazuma grandiflora (Willd. ex Spreng.) G. Don

Guazuma guazuma (L.) Cockerell

Guazuma invira (Willd.) G. Don

Guazuma parvifolia A.Rich.

Guazuma polybotra Cav.

Guazuma tomentosa Kunth

Guazuma Mutamba (Brasil ).

Guazuma utilis Poepp.

Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K.Schum.

Theobroma guazuma L.

Theobroma tomentosa (Kunth) M.Gómez2


Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.



Acorn Cuaulote, tight caolote, caulote, cuaguilote, cuahuilote, Cuaulote, guacima, guacimo, guásima, turkey, stick cob, black palote, Tapaculos.  Chiapas: tzuny;  Hidalgo: Aquiche;  Nayarit: alla (Heart);  Oaxaca: ok, tzúmn, tzumb;  Puebla: puklnankiwi (Totonac), akeichta, cashet, olotcuahuit;  Quintana Roo: guayacan, kabal, piixoy, Pixoy, xpiixoy (maya), bulín;  Sonora: Ajya;  Veracruz: e-lue, grass taxon, hucu;  San Luis Potosi: Akich (tenek);  Sinaloa: ahilla (May);  Veracruz: aqayxta (tepehua).


Theobroma guazuma L .;  Guazuma Polybotrya Cav .;  Guazuma tomentosa Kunth;  Guazuma guazuma Cocker .;  Guazuma parvifolia A. Rich.


Kingdom: Plantae

Unranked Tracheobionta

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Subclass: Dilleniidae

Order: Malvales

Family: Malvaceae

Subfamily: Byttnerioideae

Tribe: Theobromeae

Genre: Guazuma

Species: G. ulmifolia


It is a tree of low and very branched bearing that can reach up to 20 m tall, with a trunk 30-60 cm in diameter covered with gray bark.  Colorless, mucilaginous sap.  The leaves are simple, alternate, with stipules, with asymmetric basis subcordate with short petioles, ovate or oblong, sawn, from 6-12 cm long, with acute apex.  It produces small flowers clustered in axillary inflorescences and shortly stipitate;  has 5 petals yellowish-white.  The fruit is a subglobose to ellipsoid, black-purple when ripe and the surface muricada capsule.


Tree up to 25m in height, the bark comes off in small pieces.  The leaves are broad at the base and become narrow at the tip.  The flowers are yellowish;  with globose fruits of 2 to 4cm wide, black and bumps on the skin.

Species from tropical America that lives mainly areas warm and semi-warm climates, also present in dry and mild climates between 0 and 1130msnm.  Wild tree, associated with disturbed savanna vegetation, mangroves, tropical deciduous forests, deciduous, evergreen subperennifolio and spiny forest, desert scrub, cloud forest, forests of oak and pine.


It is very common in continental and insular tropical America.  It is a pioneer species heliofita and so it is commonly found in wastelands and cultivated hills and side skirts mid-elevation forests.

The Mutamba is a tropical tree called scientific name, Guazuma Ulmifolia, Family Malvaceae (formerly Stherculiaceae).  Mutamba, is a Tupi Guarani Indian word meaning "hard fruit," also called Guazuma, Mutambo, Araticum bravo, Head-to-black, fruit Macaco or Chico-lean.

Origin: Born in several forest formations Central and South America, appearing preferentially in the forests of Brazil.


The mucilage is used to treat burns from guao.  The decoction has been used against hemorrhoids, attributing emollient and astringent properties;  also used to treat bruises and bumps, as a diuretic and flu.

Ingestion of large amounts of different parts of the tree can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, so that his administration is recommended dose inhalers.

The mucilage is also used in beautifying the hair and to prevent his fall.

A decoction of fruit is used to treat diarrhea, colds, and kidney problems.  The infusion and decoction of the bark is used to treat malaria, syphilis, baldness, gonorrhea, fractures, elephantiasis and respiratory conditions (cold, cough, measles) .The leaves are used to treat liver and kidney diseases, asthma, bronchitis, fever and gonorrea.¨La root bark is used against hemorrhoids and dysentery.  A decoction of the bark is used topically to treat dermatomucosas conditions (stomatitis, leppra, pyoderma, burns), fractures and inflamaciones.Se attributed anti-inflammatory, appetizer, depurative, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, lipolitica, sudorific, tonic and vulnerary.

In Guerrero, Puebla and Veracruz, the Guazima for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is used.  Diarrhea decoction of the bark, leaves or buds, fasting or water while drinking.  Children who have intestinal infection with diarrhea ("choppy works", sometimes with greenish-yellow diarrhea with mucus or blood, stomach pain and fever) are supplied with the tea made from the buds (buds) of guazuma, the offspring of guava (Psidium guajava), the stem tecatas nanche (Nanche) and oak (Quercus sp.).  In Puebla, Quintana Roo and Yucatan, against dysentery aqueous infusion or maceration of the bark or leaves ingested.  In the State of Mexico for this same condition the root is used.

In Guanajuato cooking the aerial part against evil rust and is used as antidiabetic.

For cases of indigestion, a decoction of the bark or leaves are ingested, or water where they have been macerated, accompanied by oil, other trees and maneuvers such as massage or sobadas to thunder indigestion.  In Michoacán tea swallowed several times a day and is prepared Guazima bark, root guinarcito (Sida acuta), tow coconut (Cocos nucifera), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bark Pinzan (Pithecellobium dulce), but before taking it back and stomach rubs of the pacient with indigestion.  In Guerrero soban the body from the outside in, from the hands and feet up the trunk with pink oil or eating, then soba and loins are pulled up from the neck to the hips and then take a decoction of the bark Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), leaf sen (n / r) and linseed (n / r).

Other digestive diseases for which usual consumption decoction of the bark or leaves, are: abdominal pain, stomach pain or "Thorson", gastritis, liver, stomach ailments and digestive disorders, stomach fresheners children and bile.

In various injuries or ailments at skin level, is used externally decoction of the bark, leaves or fruit to give baths or washes, or the sap is applied directly.  For chincual, baths are given to children or refiega directly and in conditions or rash or dermatitis, pimples or sores, wound, for snakebite or scorpion sting, and diseases such as scarlet fever and leprosy, hairline and itching of the body.

Gynecoobstetric various venereal diseases or disorders include it in their therapeutic orally.  It is used as a coagulant in cases of bleeding heat in parturients or vaginal bleeding, if irregular menstruation or dysmenorrhea, belly pain or menstrual, to stimulate labor and expel the placenta, infection or inflammation of the womb and ovaries, and for venereal diseases such as syphilis (V. purgation).

It is also used for renal-urinary diseases such as rust bad system (closed V. urine and kidney pain) kidney disease, kidney inflammation, kidney disease or kidney ailments, urinary retention and urinary antiseptic .  In the Balsas, ground ripe fruit put it in sugar water and drink it like water use, to meet kidney diseases.  In Nayarit, bad rust is fasting drinking water where they soaked bark-during the night and it's applied as a poultice on the waist.

It is also used in cases of fever or fever.  Cough, it is recommended to drink a decoction of the root, fruit or bark.

Also use for diabetes, rheumatism, spleen, blood, elephantiasis, croup, inflammation, malaria, Tiricia and disinfectant mentioned.



Caffeine has been detected and a variety of metabolites tannins in the leaves.  Preliminary phytochemical screening indicates the presence of larger compounds, these compounds derived most of its beneficial effects.

In another study in Mexican material tannins presence and absence of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins in bark of this tree is also described.

The Guazuma Ulmifolia is native to America to be historical tree.  Results of pharmacological studies suggest that some popular applications has been able to validate its biological action.  However, no information was found on the toxicity of the tree from which no toxic effects are known.

The aqueous extract of the bark exerted a stimulatory action of rat uterus and hypotensive action in cat, with stimulation of respiration when administered intravenously.  Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the bark caused a slight smooth muscle relaxing activity of rabbit duodenum.  The dye and the ethanol-water extract of the leaves showed antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis addition of Shigella dysenteriae in in vitro studies and the ethanol extract of the same organ exerted a strong cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cells CA- 9KB, in in vitro studies.

Bark and inner bark of Mutamba Guazuma Ulmifolia known as (Mutamba) are rich in components with pharmacological properties.  Triterpene alkaloids and this presents a considerable amount of tannins (Costi et al. 2004).

Properties of metabolites tannins are linked to their ability to form complex proteins involved in tissue protection, compared to microbiological attack.  It also gives the taste properties grouped under the term astringency, has anti-free radicals and is able to consume the energy of dissolved oxygen, ie, have interesting pharmacological properties and antioxidant function also show potent activity against HIV replication (Cocuzza, 2001).



Despite the appearance of current therapies against HIV-1 virus, decreasing to undetectable levels of viral particles, the virus persists in vessels in the body, such as T lymphocytes asleep.  The appearance and the rate of emergence of resistance to various combinations of drugs available in the market is also a limiting factor.  However, one factor that makes it even harder to anti-HIV therapy is the high incidence of side effects caused by medications available today.  Studies by Ligani Jr. and colleagues showed that this is the main cause of failures in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (20.5%), which is mainly characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain as well as pain head and even changes in skin color, called severe side effects such as lipodystrophy.


The use of medicinal tree is the result of secular accumulation of empirical data on the stock of knowledge about trees by various ethnic groups.  They are relevant to the standardization of production and marketing techniques herbal important issues, however (De Clercq, 2000).

The herbs found in relatively high quantities of phenolic compounds.  Their role is essential to protect tissues from attack by insects, fungi or bacteria.  It is considered a relatively efficient system of passive defense.  Trees may also produce large amounts of phenols from a change in the surface of living cells: protection is enabled.  The best example is given by the bite of insects on the leaves that are the source of galls.

For ten years tree Mutamba was observed and realized that at some point in the year, had a strong presence of gills, dry reaching almost 70% commitment from the tree, and with each passing day the tree was recovering, showing resistance to blight that previously reached.


In 1946 Faina state of Goias, the expert and scientist Dr. Francisco Cabral de Melo, Pharmaceutical UFRJ, and colleagues tested not documented in patients with yellow fever using the tannin Mutamba substrate having a low molecular weight with a favorable prognosis, and healing was successful in 100% of cases, without evidence of toxicity in any of them, being a natural compound, after three days of use of the extract, patients came coma, recovering completely.  Thus discovering that could eradicate the Mutamba tree, the yellow fever virus.


To identify the tree efficiency Mutamba Guazuma Ulmifolia substrate (Mutamba) as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor in viral replication (an enzyme that polymerizes DNA molecules from RNA molecules, often the opposite of what happens in cells) of HIV with reduced risk of toxicity.


• identify the molecular weight of tannin, which has an inhibitory action of retroviral reverse transcriptase of HIV, with lower risk of toxicity.

• Promote reduction in viral load while preserving the function of the immune system.

• Delaying disease progression by altering the natural history of HIV.


Tannin molecules were tested with the intention of finding an effective drug against HIV.  Kilkuskie and colleagues observed gallotannins research showed inhibitory activity only in toxic concentrations, ellagitannins and condensed tannins inhibit viral replication and complex tannins have demonstrated potent activity against HIV replication.  Concluded that an anti-HIV activity exhibited by tannins is due to inhibition of reverse transcriptase, thus hampering viral replication.


 This justifies the high relevance of research with a lower molecular weight tannins and lower toxicity.

Given the results, Dr. Gouveia in Brazil with his research team has been testing molecules tannin Mutamba, with the intention of finding an effective drug against HIV because in their research, the virus of yellow fever and HIV are equal in terms of structure.  In an interview, medical specialist, explains the treatment led to two people with HIV.  Eight months after completion of treatment and the same, such as the specific PCR tests and blood tests to detect viral load were negative in relation to the diagnosis of disease outcomes.  This means that viruses that replicate, stopped in their multiplication in the body of patients, "They turned to zero viral load, and restored in 15 kg or 10 kg body weight, treatment efficacy is practically proven" says scientist and doctor, explaining that now with scientific and technical reviews Biópcia is proven the effectiveness of the product and 100%.  Dr. Gouveia also explains that because it is a natural remedy, has no contraindications and no ethical-moral impediment continuity and mass can be applied on the infected population.  The treatment is only for people who have been detected with the HIV virus.


Following the success of Mutamba described above with yellow fever virus.  A study on the virus of yellow fever was developed, the yellow fever virus is a retro virus RNA with structures similar to the HIV virus.  The research project was started ten years ago, under the direction of scientific and Dr. Antonio Rodrigues Paulo Gouveia, studying Guazulma ulmifolia (Mutamba) tree by observing their particularities, being a medium-sized tree, typical of the areas locked and transition zones to the Amazonian jungle, it was discovered that the trees in the states of Goiás and Tocantins presented this special feature, introduced in secondary metabolites, a tannin that is effective in detecting virus inhibitor.

By studying related items Guazulma ulmifolia tree (Mutamba) similar trees in eastern Mexico south to Paraguay, only tree of these two Brazilian states have specifically studied the effectiveness of a viral inhibitor reported, yet this study , research and literature review began, with more emphasis on the tree of these two states.

Rodrigues Gouveia and his team helped molecular tools to eliminate HIV-1 and made use of a compound called MGU-Tannin, (MGU abbreviation stands where the compound is found), the same that crosses the cytoplasmic barrier cells and reaches the HIV-1 even in distant places like lingonodos and bone marrow of infected patients.  Was finally achieved with very powerful braking activity of HIV-1 replication, safely and effectively and without any cell toxicity compound.


The team from Brazil  thus releases the procedure used in testing for destruction of the HIV-1 virus, using the extracted from Mutamba MGUT:

In conclusion has been achieved retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibiting viral replication in HIV-1 (an enzyme that polymerizes DNA molecules from RNA molecules).  Thus what is achieved with the Mutamba is to promote the reduction of viral load while preserving the function of the immune system while delaying disease progression by altering the natural history of HIV-1 directly.


They have performed in vitro studies and the ethanol extract of the same organ has a strong cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cells CA-9KB, in in vitro studies.  Metabolites properties tannins are linked to their ability to form complex proteins involved in tissue protection, compared to microbiological attack.  It also gives the taste properties grouped under the term astringency, has anti-free radicals and is able to consume the energy of dissolved oxygen, ie, have interesting pharmacological properties and antioxidant function (Cocuzza, 2001).

For these properties described using the substrate MGUT Mutamba has had excellent results in patients in the fight against cancer in its early stages, even if not performed metastasis same patient, applying the substrate MGUT Mutamba   150 days therapies.



Botany.  L. Aguilar 1990;  Alejandre V. et al.  1988;  Antonio N. 1989;  A. Barrera et al.  1976;  F. Basurto 1982;  L. Caballero 1984;  Calatayud A. 1990;  Cano G. 1979;  Indian Coordinating Center Isthmus Region 1987;  De Niz D. 1989;  Escalantes.  1986;  Swords M. and ZitaG.  1982;  Espinosa J. 1985;  G. Esquivel 1982;  V. Evangelista et al.  1991;  1990 i flowers;  M. Gispert et al.  1991;  Gómez I. L. and Chong 1985;  Gonzalez R. 1979;  Heinrich M. et al.  1990;  Hernandez J. 1988;  N. Herrera 1986;  Institute of Ecology AC 1991;  R. López and A. Hinojosa 1988;  Lozoya X. et al.  1982;  G. and G. Morales Toledo 1987;  Ochoa M. 1989;  Ortiz G 1987, 1990;  V. Perez 1982;  Torcs B. 1978;  Zizumbo D. and P. García 1982.

Ecology.  Antonio N. 1971;  F. Basurto 1982;  L. Caballero 1984;  De Niz D. 1989;  Research Center of Quintana Roo, 1991;  Scientific Research Centre of Yucatan, 1991;  Swords and Zita G. M. 1982;  Espinosa J. 1985;  J. Flores 1990;  I. García 1984;  N. Herrera 1986;  Institute of Ecology 1991;  E. Lopez 1988;  R. López and A. Hinojosa 1988;  Martinez MA 1991;  P. Ochoa 1989;  V. Perez 1982;  T. Ruiz 1986;  Soto J. 1987;  Zizumbo D. and P. García 1982.

Ethnobotany.  Aguilar J. 1990;  Alejandre V. et al.  1988;  Antonio N. 1971;  F. Basurto 1982;  E. Cabrera et al.  1982;  Calatayud A. 1990;  Cano G. 1979;  Indian Coordinating Center of the Region!  Isthmus.  1987;  De Niz D. 1989;  S. Escalante 1986;  Swords and Zita G. M. 1982;  Espinosa J. 1985;  G. Esquivel 1982;  V. Evangelista et al.  1991;  Flores M. 1990;  Garcia S. 1984;  M. Gispert et al.  1991;  Gómez I. L. and Chong 1985;  Gonzalez R. 1979;  Heinrich M. et al.  1990;  Hernandez J. 1988;  N. Herrera 1986;  Institute of Ecology AC 1991;  E. Lopez 1988;  R. López and A. Hinojosa 1988;  Lozoya X. et al.  1982;  G. and G. Morales Toledo 1987;  Niembro A. 1986;  Ochoa M. 1989;  Ortiz G. 1987;  Ortiz G. 1990;  V. Perez 1982;  Pulido T. s / a;  C. Romero 1984;  T. Ruiz 1989;  M. Sanchez 1989;  A. Santos 1988;  Soto J. 1985;  B. Torres 1978;  Zizumbo D. and Garcia P 1982.

Anthropology.  C. Zolla 1988

History.  F. Hernandez 1959 (1571-1576);  R. Ossado 1983 (1750-1760);  M. Martinez 1969 (1934).

Chemistry.  Freise FW 1935.

Pharmacology.  GSG Barros 1970;  A. Caceres 1987;  Girón 1986;  1988;  Suresh M. 1990;  Viera JEV 1968.